Tuesday, 10 November 2015


 A hundred thousand years back, mankind had just evolved in the Great Rift Valley of Africa. These people had fires, arrows, spears, and an advanced brain. They had power over many tools and inventions, but all of these inventions were created millions of years before. No human development seemed to be happening.

Suddenly, a drought appeared, and all sources of water in the valley dried up. And the newly evolved species began to move away, first to the south and west. When the drought lifted, people kept moving away, for they had found more fertile valleys to live in. Around 80,000 years ago, people crossed the then very wide land bridge between Africa and Asia. They poured out into a series of muddy valleys, and kept on going. Somewhere in this land, which is now the Middle East, the people split into two different types; generally white people and black people. The black people filled up the rest of Africa and went on to China, India, Australia and Melanesia.

Meanwhile, a group of lighter-skinned people made their appearance in Europe, covering the continent by 40,000 years ago. Some of these lighter-skinned people resumed their colonization, and streamed into northern China through Siberia. They or the other darker-skinned group eventually colonized Polynesia around 5,000 years ago. Around China the genome changed, and gave rise to Native Americans. This stream of people traveled across the land bridge into the Americas and arrived at Cape Horn 10,000 years ago.

Homo Sapiens had just conquered the world. While they were doing so, to fit in with whatever place they were in, they had made many new inventions; the raft in Polynesia, the boomerang in Australia, the bullroarer in Africa, farming in the Middle East. The entire species had developed greatly, just because they had to move out.

That was when people settled down -- well, not really. People have been on the move forever since, whether for family, or for money, or as refugees from drought, war, or famine. Most people do not live in the same house their great grandfather was born in. Humans are always on the move.

Migrations of people still help shape the world today. If nobody ever moved to a different place, all 7 billion people in the world today would have lived in one concentrated spot in the Great Rift Valley of Africa.

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